Analysis of discrete systems The essence of a lumped-parameter mathematical model is that the state of the system can be described directly with adequate precision by the magnitudes of a finite (and usually small) number of state variables. The solution requires the following steps: System idealization: the actual system is idealized as an assemblage of elements Element equilibrium: the equilibrium requirements of each element are established in terms of state variables Element assemblage: the element interconnection requirements are invoked to …